Elem Historic Feature 6

Pile of fireplace brick

Kerosene lamp wick holder
Evidense for home canning

Mine waste excavation beneath the western road encountered historical artifacts in front of Lot 24.  The feature was well defined and contained a pile of brick (13 to 15), glass, ceramics, and metal objects.  The feature covered an area 18.4 meters NS by 19.2 meters EW.  The feature area was flagged and its boundary spray-painted to keep construction workers and equipment out.

The mine waste had been removed and it was anticipated that the feature would be protected and preserved beneath the clean fill and road construction.  With the understanding that the feature would be protected, no soil samples were recovered or processed from the feature.  A few artifacts exposed on the surface of the feature were collected and processed.

Based on historical photos, most of the 1906 structures had mortared brick and rock fireplaces and chimneys.  It is likely that the small pile of brick disturbed by the waste removal excavation represented these 1906 fireplaces.

Feature 6 location

Metal Artifacts (9)

Recovered from Feature 6 were three horseshoes (H6-2, 65), two wood-burning stove parts (H6-3, 4), a boat
bracket (H6-6 identical to the bracket from Fea. 4), car spring, square nails, and a kerosene lamp burner (H6-59).    The adjustment handle on the burner was stamped “W&S, 1886, DAUNTLESS”.  These marks indicate that the burner was manufactured by the Wallace & Sons Company of Ansonia, Conn.     

Thomas Wallace started the wire and brass business in Birmingham, Conn. in 1848.   He soon relocated to the industry town of Ansonia and specialized in copper and brass goods, pins, burners and 100+ other items.  He had a large store and warehouse at 89 Chambers Street New York (Depew 1895, Orcutt et.al. 1880).

Glass Artifacts

Glass items included bottles, a fancy bowl (H6-36), and marbles.  Random surface collection recovered pieces of 6 alcohol bottles.  At least three of these were hand-blown (H6-53, 55) indicating manufacture before 1917.  One was honey-colored indicating manufacture between 1914 and 1930 (H6-42). Two pieces of
canning jars were recovered (H6-35, 40), and one cobalt blue medicine bottle (H6-43).

Bottle makers marks included the “MG” mark of the Maywood Glass Co. (H6-38) indicating manufacture around 1958 (Toulouse 1971:357), a Latchfield Glass Co. mason jar made between 1925 and 1938 (Toulouse 1971:364), and an unidentified “CC” mark (H6-39).

The cobalt blue medicine had a “DOHO NY” mark on the base.

The marbles included three glass pieces including two clear ones (H6-52) that were most likely manufactured during the 1930’s, a swirled white and green (H6-44) that was most likely manufactured around 1920, and a ceramic “Bennington” marble (H6-51) (Webb 1994).

Most brown manganese glazed Bennington marbles were imported from Germany.   Germany began making clay marbles in late 1700’s. This import was cut off during WWI (1914-18) and most likely didn’t resume after the war.  It is possible that the Bennington could have been manufactured in the U.S. by Samuel Dyke or A. L. Dyke who opened factories in Ohio in 1884 and 1889.  In 1891, the factories consolidated and became the American Marble and Toy Manufacturing Company.  In the late 1890’s several more clay marble manufacturers came on the scene.  The clay marble began to decline in popularity when glass marble making machines were developed in 1902.   This lowered the price of glass marbles allowing them to compete with the less expensive clays.  A few stores were still selling old stocks of clay marbles into the 1930’s (Webb 1994:19).

Bottle fragments

EuroAmerican Ceramics

Ceramics were evenly divided between building ceramics and kitchen ceramics.  The 16 bricks and two porcelain door knobs (H6-56) recorded in the field made up half of the ceramic collection.  Kitchen items included pieces of one serving bowl (H6-12), one serving platter (H6-7), two saucers, one cup, one tea pot, one vase, and 12 unidentifiable pieces of tableware.

Some pieces had maker’s marks.  The American made serving platter (H6-7) had the KT&K China mark indicating manufacture by Knowles Taylor and Knowles between 1905 and 1920 (Lehner 1988:238).

The English marks of Alfred Meakin Ltd. (H6-14, 1898+) and John Maddock & Sons (H6-57, 1896+) were also found  (Godden 1991:406,425).

Both the teapot lid (H6-11) and casserole lid (H6-12) were decorated with transfer patterns.  Other patterns included yellow-ware, hand painted, and rim-line designs. One fragment of an English-made stoneware ginger-beer bottle was recovered (H6-29).

EuroAmerican transfer-ware items
EuroAmerican ceramic maker’s marks


Two Prosser buttons were recovered.  Both were sew-through 4-hole types.  One was 19-lines (H6-45) and one 17-lines (H6-58) in size.

Asian Ceramics (9)

Randomly gathered from the surface of Feature 6 were pieces of three bamboo ware rice bowls (H6-25, 47,60), one blue-on-white rice bowl (H6-28), and the piece of a blue-on-white teapot with a picture of a person apparently plowing or pushing a cart (H6-26).

Other tableware included one piece of a Four-Seasons serving bowl (H6-24) and an unknown polychrome porcelain piece (H6-46).

Other Asian ceramics included the broken base of a Ng-Ka-Py jar (H6-27) and part of a bisque doll’s head with the impressed word “Japan” (H6-61).  These porcelain dolls were manufactured in Japan between 1924 and 1927 (Coleman 1986:565).

Chinese rice bowl and tea pot fragments.
Chinese Ng-Ka-Py jar and Japanese bisque doll head.

Bone and Shell

A few pieces of mammal bone and bird bone (most likely chicken) were recovered. Also recovered were pieces of Washington clamshell (saxidomus).

Washington clam was used in bead manufacture, and a single clam disk bead was also recovered (H6-64).

Prehistoric Artifacts

Three obsidian points and one sandstone mano were recovered from the Feature 6 area.  It must be remembered that 7 of the 8 historic features were located within the boundaries of prehistoric site LAK-76.

Point H6-50 was sent for hydration and had a mean rim reading of 4.4 microns indicating manufacture ~1,800 B.P.


Both household and equestrian artifacts suggest that Feature 6 represents the discards from a family who took care of horses. Tableware suggested that meals were served to the members of a fairly large family at one setting.

Discarded toys indicate that both male and female children were part of the family.   Maker’s marks and periods of manufacture of various items indicate that this feature contained household discards ranging in age from the 1880’s to 1958.  The majority of datable artifacts appear to have been manufactured during the 1920’s and 30’s.