Knives were chipped on both sides and had dulled (used) cutting edges.  These items were divided into 5
main categories based on physical attributes.  The primary difference between a knife and a point was
the freshness or sharpness of the cutting edge.  It was assumed that knife-edges would have been used
repeatedly for a cutting, scraping, or sawing activity.  This activity would have dulled the cutting edge.  
The sharp edge of a point would not have been used for cutting or scraping in an effort to maintain its
sharpness for a hunting event.  There were 109 knives recovered during project monitoring.

All obsidian chipped stone tools that appeared to have diagnostic shapes were submitted for hydration
analysis.  Hydration readings were converted to approximate years B.P. (Before Present) using Thomas
Origer's (1993) rate for Napa obsidian and the Borax Lake/Napa obsidian conversion factor developed by
Kim Tremaine and Dave Fredrickson (1988).
Site maintained as a public service by Archaeological Research, PO Box 1353, Lucerne, CA 95458.
Elem Knives
History and Prehistory of Lake County
and Beyond
Long Thin Knives (28)
[1,100/1,800/3,900/6,900/7,400 B.P.]

The most numerous of knives were the long thin
knives.  Most of these were of Borax Lake obsidian
(25) although some were of Konocti obsidian (3).  
Specimens 0-31 and 0-73 had hydration rims of 4.3
microns indicating manufacture ~1,800 B.P.  Item
0-293 had two rims suggesting the reuse of an
existing tool.  The oldest rim was 8.8 microns (~7,400
B.P.) and the more recent 6.4 microns (3,900 B.P.).
Item 0-27 and 0-350 (not pictured) had readings of 3.5
and 8.5 microns indicating ages of 1,200 and 6,900
B.P.  The constricted end of 0-73 may indicate use as
a reamer.
Broad Knives (27)
[1,200/2,300/2,600/3,400/3,900/5,600 B.P.]

Thin and broad, all but one of these knives were of
Borax Lake obsidian.  One was of basalt.  Item 0-10
had a hydration mean of 7.7 microns indicating
manufacture ~5,600 B.P.  Item 0-42 had a 6 micron
reading indicating manufacture ~3,400 B.P.  Item
0-143 had two hydration bands; one of 6.4 microns
suggesting manufacture ~3,900 B.P. and one of 5
microns suggesting reuse ~2,300 B.P.  Item 0-150 had
a mean of 3.6 microns indicating manufacture ~1,200
B.P.  Item 0-152 had a mean of 5.2 indicating
manufacture ~2,600 B.P.  Item 0-66 (not pictured) had
a reading of 5.2 suggesting manufacture ~2,600 B.P.
Thick Irregular Knives (19) [900/1,100/1,600 B.P.]

These knives appeared to be very roughly chipped and
may have been “pre-forms” rather than functional
knives.  A pre-form is a piece of obsidian partially
trimmed and shaped for transport.  Once it reaches
its destination, the final shaping, thinning and
sharpening work is completed.  Borax Lake obsidian
had been used for 14 of these tools, basalt for 3,
Konocti obsidian for 1 and obsalt for 1.  Those
pictured here had hydration of 3.5 microns (0-12)
indicating 1,100 B.P. manufacture and 3.2 microns (0-
161) indicating 900 B.P.  Item 0-332 (not pictured)
had a reading of 4.1 indicating an age of 1,600
Keeled Knives (6) [95/6,700/7,900/10,500 B.P.]

Keeled knives were roughly triangular in cross-
section, resembling a ship’s keel.  Their use is
unknown, however the three distinct cutting edges
may have been important for drilling or reaming.  
White (1984:228) lists them as “expended” or used
knives. Five of these knives were of Borax Lake
obsidian and 2 were of basalt.  Item 0-126 had a
reading of 1 micron (95 B.P.).  Item 0-371 had a
reading of 8.4 microns (6,700 B.P.). Item 0-354 had a
rim of 9.1 microns, indicating manufacture ~7,900 B.
P.  Item 0-347 had a reading of 10.5 microns (10,500 B.

Chipped stone knives can serve a wide range of functions, however, they are most widely noted for their use in
butchering and hide preparation. It is important to note that not all animals that require butchering and hide
preparation are obtained through hunting with spear, dart, or bow.  It takes much less energy and is far easier to
trap and snare most small mammals.  Therefore, butchering tools can be found in sites where there is no evidence
of hunting.

Four major styles of stone knives were recovered during the monitoring program.  An examination of the hydration
readings for these items indicates that these styles were not all popular during the same time period.

Thick Irregular Knives

The thick irregular knives appear to have been manufactured between 1,000 and 1,500 B.P. (4-5 microns). Though
their function is unknown, it is possible that these items were not knives, but rather rough “preforms” obtained
from and shaped at the Borax Lake obsidian flow.  Such preforms may have been used as items of exchange in the
regional trade system.

Broad Flat Knives

The broad and flat knives were manufactured primarily between 2,000 and 4,000 B.P. (5-6 microns).  A similar
increase in the number of points was also found during this period.

Keeled Knives

Though their use is unknown, these knives with a triangular cross section appear to be most popular prior to 7,000
B.P. (9+ microns).

Long Thin Knives

Though there might have been a slight increase in their use at 7,000 and 4,000 B.P. (9 and 5 microns), these knives
appeared to be in use through all time periods.