Although historic and recent Euro American ceramics were recovered
throughout the project area (148 pieces), most historic ceramics were
recovered from the Historic Feature area (see "Historic Fea." section).   In
addition to typical tableware, ceramic pieces included stoneware and
porcelain marbles and other toys, fireplace and chimney brick, English
stoneware beverage containers, vases, porcelain doorknobs, and terra cotta
flowerpots.
Other Ceramic Items

Toys are not the first thing that comes to mind when
discussing ceramics, however, two ceramic marbles and the
nose of a ceramic animal vase or statue were recovered.  
One marble was white glazed stoneware (0-238) and was
likely manufactured between 1884 and 1930 (Webb 1994:19).
The other marble was porcelain (0-289) and was most likely
manufactured in Germany or England between 1880 and
1914 (Webb 1994:20).  The cat or dog nose appeared to be
plaster or low-fired cream ware that had been poured into a mold.

Porcelain doorknobs were recovered (0-165) and suggest late 1800’s house
construction.

One bead was recovered that appeared to be ceramic (0-310).
Site maintained as a public service by Archaeological Research, PO Box 1353, Lucerne, CA 95458.
Contact: dr.john@wolfcreekarcheology.com
Elem Historic Ceramics
History and Prehistory of Lake County
and Beyond
Ceramic Density

The map shows the density of all isolated ceramics
recovered during project monitoring.  This
includes both historic and modern ceramics.  It
indicates several areas of increased density.  

The highest density was in the northeastern
portion of the property (near the road that leads to
a recently used community dump).   Other dense
ceramic areas include the north-central area (lots 2,
30 and 31) and western area, which was the location
of the late 1800’s village of Elem.

Although many areas of the reservation were not
within the project-monitoring zone, it is assumed
that the distribution extends to the lakeshore.
Ceramic items were made of stoneware, cream ware, porcelain, and
earthenware.

Though most ceramics were plain white glazed ware, patterns included
hand painted, transfer ware (0-305, 306), and decal over glaze (0-36,
182, 278).

Pieces recovered represented manufacture from the late 1800’s
through the 1960’s.

A few pieces with maker’s marks were recovered.  Those shown below
include Thomas Furnival & Sons (0-199) manufactured between 1818
and 1890, Johnson Brothers (0-415) manufactured between 1883 and
1913, Gibson Overseas (0-307) manufactured after 1979, and an
unidentifiable “Kingsbury” mark (Godden 1991).   















The “O.P. Co.” mark of the Onondaga
Pottery Company was found on one
piece (0-172).

W.H. Farrar opened a ceramic business in Geddes New York in
1841.  He made salt-glazed stoneware, utilitarian pots, jars,
and bowls known as Rockingham ware.  In 1868, Farrar and
three partners established the Empire Pottery Company in
Syracuse.  In 1871, 16 businessmen formed a partnership and
purchased Empire Pottery renaming the operation the
Onondaga Pottery Company (O.P.Co.) after the region’s Native
Iroquois Tribe (see historical drawing of plant).  In 1888,
James Pass developed America’s first truly vitreous china.  
His new ware won the medal for translucent china at the
Chicago Exposition in 1893 and in 1895 the words “Syracuse
China” were added to the makers mark.  In 1966, O.P. Co.
changed its name to Syracuse China.  In 1971, it became the
Syracuse China Corp. and in 1978 merged with the Canadian
Pacific Investments Co.  Syracuse China bought the Mayer
China Company in 1984 and Shenango Pottery in 1988.  In
1989, Canadian Pacific put Syracuse China up for sale and it
was bought by the Susquehanna-Pfaltzgraff Company.  In
1995, Syracuse China was bought by Libbey Inc. and still
manufactures Syracuse China (Syracusethenandnow.org,
2007).