The three shell beads shown (0-206) were found during monitoring at one location.

The red abalone (haliotis rufescense) great horned owl pendant was discovered
immediately beneath mine waste.  It displays both modern and traditional
manufacture with biconically drilled “eye” holes and straight drill-bit holes along the
sides (three made with a 1/16 bit and five made with a 3/32 bit).  Keeping to the
traditional Pomo system, four holes were drilled along each side.  In Pomo culture,
the number four is very significant.  The Pomo had a base 4 counting system and
considered sacred the four directions, the four seasons, and the four earthly states
(fire, water, earth and sky).

All ceremonial dances are conducted in sets of four and the dance house has either
four roof support poles or two sets of four.
Site maintained as a public service by Archaeological Research, PO Box 1353, Lucerne, CA 95458.
Elem Personal Adornment
History and Prehistory of Lake County
and Beyond
Glass trade beads were recovered by monitors in the cemetery area following a burial
that occurred during the project.  These beads were brought to California by the
Spanish.  Many of the unearthed glass beads were pressed into a wet concrete slab
covering the new grave.

The Elem cemetery has been in use for more than 100 years as is evidenced by this
1906 photo.  Most of the individual fenced plots in the photo show a flagpole that
once displayed the family’s traditional flag.  In areas where fencing is no longer
standing, it is often possible to locate past graves by looking for piles of rock.  While
digging a grave in the rocky soil, heavy rocks are piled next to the hole.  Once the
burial is complete, this pile of heavy rocks often remains (even if the fencing is lost).
Shell beads, glass beads, and a shell pendant were recovered.