Unit JK was located on the level ground surface within the
traveled way of the Lot 28 road but along its northern
edge.  The Unit was designated after John Kelsey (Elem
Tribal Elder who lived along the Lot 28 road).

The unit was oriented in a general east-west direction in
line with the existing roadway.

Unit JK was a 1 X 2 meter excavation conducted in
arbitrary 10cm levels based on the surface contour.  Each
10cm of soil was dry screened through 1/4” mesh shaker
screens.  All material not passing through the screen was
bagged and returned to the lab for processing.  The unit
was excavated to a depth of 40cm.

Unit JK soils were cleanly layered. At the base of the unit
(40cm) the floor was covered with fist-sized volcanic bombs
suggesting a major volcanic event.  Lying atop these rocks
was a 30cm thick cultural midden consisting of dark
gray/brown soils containing an abundance of obsidian,
shell, and charcoal.  Atop the cultural soil was a layer of
light brown gravelly fill, most likely brought in as fill to
stabilize the roadbed.  Atop this road fill was a layer of
mine waste that had also been used to fill in wheel ruts and
stabilize the roadbed.  The wheel ruts are easily seen in the
east and west profile drawings.

    A) Light yellow/brown mine waste.
    B) Light brown gravelly fill soil.
    C) Dark gray/brown midden containing an abundance
    of  shell, charcoal and obsidian.

Both the soil profiles and the excavation level records
indicate that the mine waste layer did not extend below a
depth of 10cm.

This photo of the 40cm floor of unit JK shows a layer of
volcanic bombs.  It is likely that this layer covers much of
the reservation and is the geologic marker of the most
recent eruption within the Lake Basin.

The volcanic bomb pictured here is typical of those
recovered from unit JK.
JK Unit Historic Disturbance (soil integrity)

Analysis of all material recovered indicates the range of cultural material
represented in the unit.  The left graphs below show all material by level and all
material minus chipped stone (debitage).

The right graph shows only “Euro American Other” material and indicates the depth
to which historical soil mixing has occurred.

It is clear from the right graph that most recent historic material was recovered from
the top 10cm (5 times the weight of historic material recovered from any other
level).  This indicates that soils within the top 10cm of the unit were historically
mixed.  Although a small amount of historic material was recovered from all levels,
it is likely that these materials were moved through the soil column by rodent action
and do not indicate historical soil mixing.

This suggests that soils below a depth of 10cm at unit JK remained intact.
Site maintained as a public service by Archaeological Research, PO Box 1353, Lucerne, CA 95458.
Contact: dr.john@wolfcreekarcheology.com
Elem JK1 Excavation Unit Introduction
History and Prehistory of Lake County
and Beyond