Before Parker & Assoc. Archaeological Research arrived at the project, the EPA had
already completed the Phase 1A portion of the project.  This involved demolition of
existing homes and the removal of mine tailings that had been used as fill under
those homes.  Mechanical excavation proceeded 30-60cm into underlying cultural
soils after the mine waste had been removed. In some instances these excavations
went as deep as 8 to 10 feet into intact cultural soils.

In areas where mine waste did not exist, damage to historic resources included the
use of a bulldozer to clear surface vegetation for the placement of silt fences and
driving track driven and tire driven trucks and equipment over unprotected cultural

On August 8th 2006, Archaeological Research took photographs and measurements of
the open excavations and graded areas that were still visible from the Phase 1A
process. These measurements revealed that approximately 7,000 cubic meters of
cultural soil had been destroyed.

The map below shows the Elem Reservation along with black outlined areas of EPA
archaeological damage.  Numbers on the map correspond with the accompanying
photos showing cut banks and excavations where cultural soils had been removed.  
For scale, a meter stick with 10cm graduations is displayed in most photos.
History and Prehistory of Lake County
and Beyond
1878 Painting
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