Additional damage done to cultural sites in violation of excavation protocols.
History and Prehistory of Lake County
and Beyond
1878 Painting
Area 8: Lot 28 Water Truck Road Grading

On 9-22-06, grading to remove a layer of mine waste from the water truck
road on Lot 28 was conducted.  In anticipation of this work, a data recovery
unit was excavated through the mine waste and into the cultural deposit to
a depth of 40cm
(click here to learn more about this unit).  The size and
depth of the data recovery unit was based on core samples of soil from
various locations along the road.  These samples indicated a fairly shallow
depth for the mine waste.  It was therefore determined that removing the
waste would require relatively shallow grading.  The 1 x 2 meter
archaeological unit was excavated to a depth of 40cm and recovered ~0.8
cubic meter of cultural soil.  Sidewall profiles of the unit indicated mine
waste to a depth of 5 to 15cm.

Mechanical grading was then done to remove the mine waste.  However, once
the mine waste was removed, grading continued, removing an additional 20
to 30cm depth of cultural soil.

This took place over an area 48 meters long and 3 meters wide destroying
~43.2 cubic meters  of cultural soil.  Although data recovery is a way of
mitigating damage to archaeological resources as part of the Section 106
process, it is usually required that a “statistically valid” sample be
recovered from the area of impact.

The 0.8 cubic meter data recovery sample effectively mitigated damage to
13.8 cubic meters of cultural site soil.  However the EPA's extensive grading
into intact archaeological soils caused 43.2 cubic meters of damage.  This
means that 29.4 cubic meters of damage occurred to this part of the site
without any mitigation (violation of protocol items #5 and #7).

On 9-26-06, excavation of the storm drain trench damaged intact portions of
data recovery program designed to recover a statistically valid sample of the
area to be disturbed.  This mitigation included the excavation of 7 data
recovery units within the trench alignments.  Project surveyors provided
actual storm drain trenching was conducted, the trench was not on the same
alignment provided for the archaeological work, thereby destroying a portion
of the site that had not been mitigated (violation of protocol items #5 and

Unknown volume of cultural soil damaged.

Area 10: Lot 26 Soft Spot Grading (no photos obtained)

On 10-2-06, a Tribal monitor called to report that excavation was taking
place within undisturbed cultural soils in front of Lot 26.  This work was
apparently done to remove a “soft spot” that had occurred due to over-
watering by the water trucks.  Based on reports from John Holson and Sandy
Thomas, the hole was 5 meters by 6 meters and 1 meter deep (violation of
protocol items #5 and #7).  Ms. Thomas said that the soils removed
contained historic glass, metal and clamshell.

Approximately 30 cubic meters of cultural soil was destroyed with no

Area 11: Lot 23 Water Line Trenching

On 10-4-06, excavation for a water line connection was conducted within
cultural site soil without the benefit of an archaeological monitor (violation
of protocol items #1, #5 and #7).  Bones were encountered.

Unknown volume of cultural soil damaged.

Unmitigated Cultural Resource Damage Between
August 22nd and October 4th, 2006

Based on the above listed violations of the excavation protocol, a minimum
of 913 cubic meters of cultural soil was destroyed with no mitigation during
the Phase 1B portion of the cleanup project.
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